Endangered ecological communities


Endangered Ecological Communities (EEC) are groups of plants and animals that occur together in a particular area, that are in danger or vulnerable to extinction.

EEC are defined in NSW under the Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 and nationally under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

There are four endangered ecological communities, and two critically endangered, in Ku-ring-gai that we strive to preserve for their unique character and habitat.

These areas are characterised by a set of environmental conditions which influences the presence of flora and fauna species, including landforms, soil types and climate.

Threats to these communities have been the result of clearing, fragmentation and pressures from the surrounding environment, such as weeds, nutrient run off and sedimentation.

In order to protect our amazing plant and animal species, we need to do all that we can here in Ku-ring-gai to protect our natural environment, especially our endangered ecological communities.

In addition to providing a biodiversity benefit, these areas also have important social, cultural, heritage and economic value.

There are six endangered ecological communities in Ku-ring-gai that we strive to preserve for their unique character and habitat:


blue gum

Blue Gum High Forest

Blue Gum High Forest is a unique community of trees, shrubs, grasses and groundcovers.
duffys forest

Duffys Forest

Duffys forest ranges in height from 11 - 20 metres, dominated by Red Bloodwoods, Black Ash, Smooth-barked Apple and Stringybarks.

Sydney Turpentine-Ironbark Forest

Sydney Turpentine-Ironbark Forest (STIF) is dominated by Turpentine, Eucalypts and Ironbarks.

Coastal Upland Swamp

Coastal Upland Swamp features tall scrub, closed heath, sedgeland and fernland in moist soil.
swamp oak

Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest

Swamp Oaks and Swamp Paperbarks dominate the forest in moist areas close to rivers and estuaries.

Estuarine saltmarsh

Estuarine saltmarsh is usually found behind mangroves in tidal areas.